There are many types of cancer, but each is fatal. Some cancers are now treatable, others are still incurable. Most cancers are long-term and are related to diet, heredity, environment and other personal factors. Here's how to change your habits to prevent cancer.
1. Keep your weight healthy. BMI = body weight (kg) / height ^2 (m), and it is normal when BMI index of adults is 18.5-23.9. A person's height is 1.80m, weight is 70kg, BMI = 70/ (1.8^2) =21.6 (kg/ ㎡).
In a clinical trial of 2905 women, women at high risk of breast cancer reduced their risk by 44% after taking ACS recommendations. A carnivorous diet involving 64000 women found that healthy eating (eating more fruits and vegetables, less meat and less alcohol) reduced the incidence of breast cancer: BMI < 25 kg/, the incidence rate of women was 20% lower.
Obesity promotes the production of estrogen, which in turn is a stimulator for many cancers. Experiments have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased incidence rate of breast cancer.
If the weight of adult women increases by 5kg, the relative risk of breast cancer after menopause increases by 11%. For every 5kg gain in male adults, the risk of colon cancer increased by 9%.
2. Keep your body active. Any form of exercise can help reduce the risk of cancer. A number of observational studies have found that physical exercise can reduce the risk of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer.
A study in the United States and Europe found that people who exercise to the lowest recommended level of exercise, the weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) of 7.5-15, reduced the risk of cancer death by 20% compared to people who lacked exercise.
3. Eat a diet rich in grains, vegetables, fruits and beans. The diet is based on plant-based foods (such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans), which contain dietary fiber and other nutrients, which can reduce the risk of cancer. In order to keep healthy, AICR suggests that every meal should be mainly plant-based food. When preparing a meal, at least two-thirds of the plate is composed of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans. In addition to vitamins and minerals, plant food is also a good source of phytochemicals. These bioactive substances help to protect cells from cancer in vivo. Plant based foods can also help us maintain a healthy weight, thereby reducing the risk of cancer, because most of them are low in energy.
4. Limit fast food and other processed foods with high fat, starch or sugar. Limiting these foods helps to control calorie intake and maintain healthy weight. Evidence suggests that eating fast food and Western diet are responsible for weight gain, overweight and obesity, while obesity is associated with 12 cancers. Processed foods with high starch or sugar content tend to have high blood glucose load, which will increase the risk of endometrial cancer, and should be taken as little as possible.
5. Limit the consumption of processed meat products. Eat moderate amounts of red meat, such as beef, pork and mutton. Red meat (beef, pork and mutton) is a cause of colorectal cancer. However, studies have shown that a moderate weekly intake of meat (340-511g) does not increase the risk of colorectal cancer. But for processed meat (ham, bacon, sausage), the evidence suggests that even at very low consumption levels, the risk of cancer is beginning to increase.
6. Limit the intake of sugary drinks. Drink more water and sugar free drinks. Evidence suggests that drinking sugary drinks can lead to weight gain, overweight and obesity, and are associated with 12 cancers. Sugary drinks provide energy, but may not produce a sense of fullness like food, thereby promoting excessive energy intake.
7. Limit alcohol consumption. In order to prevent cancer, it is better not to drink alcohol. Previous studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption can prevent coronary heart disease. But for cancer prevention, evidence suggests that alcohol in any form is a strong carcinogen. It's associated with six different cancers. People who are worried about cancer should not drink alcohol. If must drink, the male drinks alcohol quantity does not exceed 25 grams in a day, the female does not exceed 15 grams.
8. Don't use dietary supplements to prevent cancer. For most people, adequate nutrition can be obtained from a healthy diet. Experts don't object to the use of multivitamins or specific supplements to help specific groups of people, such as women of childbearing age and the elderly, but don't expect any dietary supplements to reduce the risk of cancer as a healthy diet. Studies have shown that high-dose carotene supplementation is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers. Therefore, if you want to take supplements, it is best to consult a nutritionist.
9. Keep breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is good for both mother and baby.
10. After cancer diagnosis, follow professional advice if possible. Anyone who has diagnosed cancer should receive professional nutritional advice from trained experts.
11. Don't take vitamins. Recent research data also do not support the use of vitamin supplements to prevent cancer, which is supported by randomized clinical trials, not just observational studies.